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Overview of Database Management Systems

 

 

A database management system (DBMS) is a computer program (or more typically, a collection of programs) designed for quick search and retrieval of information from a database. A DBMS is also used to manage a database, and run operations on the data requested by numerous users. The DBMS determines how data are stored and retrieved. It also addresses problems of security, accuracy and consistency among different records, response time, and memory requirements. These issues are most significant for database systems on computer networks.

Typical examples of DBMS use include accounting, human resources and customer support systems. The DBMS provides users and programmers with a systematic way to create, retrieve, update and manage large amounts of data within a single software application. The DBMS manages incoming data, organizes it, and provides ways for the data to be modified or extracted by users or other programs. A DBMS interacts with end-users, other applications, and the database itself to capture and analyze data. A database management system is important because it manages data efficiently and allows users to perform multiple tasks with ease. Relational DBMSs, in which data are organized into a series of tables (“relations”) that are easily reorganized for accessing data in different ways, are the most widely used today.

Components of DBMS:

1.    Software – a set of programs used to control and manage the overall database.

2.    Hardware

3.    Data

4.    Procedures

5.    Database Access Language

6.    Query Processor

7.    Run Time Database Manager

8.    Data Manager

General Functions of a DBMS: Organizations employ Database Management Systems to help them effectively manage their data and derive relevant information out of it. Some general functions of a DBMS are:

1.    Designed to allow the definition, creation, querying, update, and administration of databases

2.    Define rules to validate the data and relieve users of framing programs for data maintenance

3.    Convert an existing database, or archive a large and growing one

4.    Run business applications, which perform the tasks of managing business processes, interacting with end-users and other applications, to capture and analyze data

Types of Database Management Systems: There are four structural types of database management systems:

1.    Hierarchical databases.

2.    Network databases.

3.    Relational databases.

4.    Object-oriented databases.

Some important examples of DBMS include MySQL, PostgreSQL, Microsoft Access, SQL Server, FileMaker, Oracle, RDBMS, dBASE, Clipper, and FoxPro.

BOOKS RECOMMENDED:

R. Elmasri and S.B. Navathe (2011). Fundamentals of Database Systems. Addison-Wesley, Boston. 1172p. ISBN 10: 0-136-08620-8.

S. Sumathi and S. Esakkirajan (2007). Fundamentals of Relational Database Management Systems. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. 776p. ISBN 10: 3-540-84397-7

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