BAND INFORMATION CHARACTERISTICS

 

The tremendous amount of land cover mapping has been conducted over the last three decades using Landsat MSS, Landsat TM, and Landsat ETM+ imagery.  Landsats 4 and 5 launched in 1982 and 1984 had Thematic Mapper sensors that recorded energy in six bands in the visible through mid-infrared at 30 X 30 m (Bands 1-5 and 7) and in a single 120 X 120 m thermal band (Band 6). The landsat 7, launched in 1999 carries an Enhanced Thematic Mapper Sensor (ETM+) which includes the 15-m panchromatic band intended for Landsat 6,  and the additional improvement of 60-m spatial resolution (in band 6) for Earth temperature data. The higher spatial resolution enables more precise information on widespread land-use changes. The differences between TM and ETM+ is not in the spectral characteristics of individual bands, but in the improvement in the mode of acquiring TIR data in Band 6 and addition of a panchromatic band (Band 8), which has a spectral range of 0.52-0.90 Ám.  The data in Band 6 is acquired with both a high- and low-gain. The visible, near-infrared, mid-infrared and thermal infrared Landsat Thematic Mapper Bands, separately and in different combinations, contain a lot of information and are particularly useful for many landcover mapping applications.

The spectral resolution of each of the 7 bands, plus the panchromatic band, are summarized in the following table, along with a description of the spatial resolution and the primary information that each of these bands can reveal:

Band Characteristics of Landsat ETM+

Band

Spectral Range (microns)

Electromagnetic
Spectrum

Ground Resolution
(m)

Characteristics and uses

1

.45 to .515

Visible blue-green
(reflected)

30

"true color" composites, sedimentation in water, scattered easily by atmosphere, urban development

2

.525 to .605

Visible green
(reflected)

30

"true color" composites

3

.63 to .690

Visible red
(reflected)

30

"true color" composites

4

.75 to .90

Near Infrared
(reflected)

30

Vegetation/chlorophyll very highly reflective

5

1.55 to 1.75

Mid-Infrared
(reflected)

60

Moisture in vegetation/soils, clouds vs. snow, mineral content of rocks/soils

6

10.40 to 12.5

Thermal Infrared
(emitted)

30

Temperature of surfaces, distinguish between 0.6 Celsius

7

2.09 to 2.35

Mid-Infrared
(reflected)

30

Moisture in vegetation/soils, mineral content of rocks/soils

Pan

.52 to .90

Visible light
(reflected)

15

Very High resolution visible scan

Images below show the township of Aligarh and surrounding areas in different bands of the Enhanced Thematic Mapper.

Fig 1a: Aligarh Municipality and surrounding areas.  Landsat ETM+ (Band 1).

Fig 1b: Aligarh Municipality and surrounding areas.  Landsat ETM+ (Band 2).

Fig 1c: Aligarh Municipality and surrounding areas.  Landsat ETM+ (Band 3).

Fig 1d: Aligarh Municipality and surrounding areas.  Landsat ETM+ (Band 4).

Fig 1e: Aligarh Municipality and surrounding areas.  Landsat ETM+ (Band 5).

Fig 1f: Aligarh Municipality and surrounding areas.  Landsat ETM+ (Band 61).

Fig 1g: Aligarh Municipality and surrounding areas.  Landsat ETM+ (Band 7).

Fig 1h: Aligarh Municipality and surrounding areas.  Landsat ETM+ (Band 8).

 

Notes & Handouts

The Himalayas

Kumaon Himalayas

Askot Basemetals

University

   


This website is hosted by

S. Farooq

Department of Geology

Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh - 202 002 (India)

Phone: 91-571-2721150

email: farooq.amu@gmail.com