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M.Sc. (Applied Geology)

 

M-1:  ORE GEOLOGY AND MINING GEOLOGY

UNIT 1:

Modern concepts of ore genesis

Spatial and temporal distribution of ore deposits - a global perspective

Comparison between Earth's evolutionary history and evolutionary trends in ore deposits

Ore deposits and Plate Tectonics

Mode of occurrence of ore bodies - morphology and relationship of host rocks

Textures paragenesis and zoning of ores and their significance

Concept of ore bearing fluids, their origin and migration

Wall-rock alteration

Structural, physico-chemical and stratigraphic control of ore localization

Petrological Ore associations with Indian examples wherever feasible

UNIT 2:

Geothermometry of ore deposits.

Fluid inclusion in ores: Principles, assumptions, limitations and applications.

Inversion points, exsolution textures and stable isotopes as indicators of depositional temperatures.

Geochemistry of ores – Major & trace elements, REE and isotopic studies

Ores of mafic-ultramafic association – Diamonds in kimberlite

REE in carbonatites; Ti-V ores; chromite and PGE; Ni ores; Cu, Pb-Zn.

Ores of silicic igneous rocks with special reference to disseminated and stock work deposits, porphyry associations.

Extras:

Fluid inclusion in ores: principles, assumptions, limitations and applications.

See also lecture notes for M.Sc. Wildlife Sciences

ME1(b): OCEANOGRAPHY

UNIT 1:

Topography of the ocean floor. Sea-floor features – Shelf, slope, rise, basin, oceanic ridges, seamounts, trenches and island arcs

Physical and chemical properties of sea-water and their spatial variations

Residence time of elements in sea-water

Major water masses of the world’s oceans

Ocean currents, waves and tides

Important current systems

UNIT 2:

Thermohaline circulation and the oceanic conveyor belt

Structure and chemical composition of the atmosphere

Lapse rate and stability, scale height, geopotential height

Greenhouse gases and global warming

Waves in atmospheric and oceanic systems

Ocean-atmosphere coupling

PRACTICAL ML1 - Exercise related to Ore Geology and Field Survey

 

ORE MICROSCOPY

 

Sample Preparation for Ore Microscopy

Ore Microscopic Techniques

Applications of Textural Characteristics to Ore Dressing

 

FIELD SURVEY

 

Background Info 1 - Geological Survey: Objectives and Procedures

Background Info 2 - What is aGPS

Background Info 3 - More about aGPS

Background Info 4 - GPS Test - Instruction Manual

Exercise 1 - Using GPS for Field Surveys

Exercise 2 - Mapping Locations with GPS

Exercise 3 - Tracking a Route with GPS

Exercise 4 - Navigating with GPS to Predetermined Locations

M-8:  REMOTE SENSING IN GEOSCIENCES

UNIT 1:

Wavelength Regions of Electromagnetic Spectrum used in Remote Sensing

Types of Remote Sensing with Respect to Wavelength Regions

Radiometry

Black Body Radiation

Reflectance

Spectral Characteristics of Solar Radiation

Transmittance of the Atmosphere

Spectral Reflectance of Land Covers

Remote Sensing Satellite Characteristics - Orbits and Swaths

Sensors used in Remote Sensing

Multispectral Images - Black & White and FCC Images

Global and Indian Space Missions

Image Interpretation and Analysis

Different Satellite Exploration Programmes and their Characteristics: 

LANDSAT

SPOT

TERRA

SRTM

IRS

ADDITIONAL READING

Principles of Remote Sensing

General Idea About Electromagnetic Spectrum

Interaction of EMR with Atmosphere and Earth

Atmospheric Windows

Remote Sensing Sensors, Framing Systems (Cameras and Vidicons)

Scanning Systems, Platforms, Spatial, Spectral, Temporal and Radiometric Resolution

Types of Multispectral Images

EXERCISES

Exercises in image processing & interpretation

Multi-spectral Image Processing Basics from PennState

  Exercise 1: Display and Inspection of Image Data

  Exercise 2: Image Enhancement

  Exercise 3: Unsupervised Classification (Cluster Analysis)

  Exercise 4: Supervised Classification

Exercises in Basin Morphometry (ML-9)

 

M-9:  GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION

UNIT 1:

Variations of gravity over the earth’s surface

Measurements of earth’s gravity field – Relative gravity and gravity gradients

Density of common rocks and minerals

Gravity survey practice

Reduction of gravity dataDerivation of free-air and Bouguer gravity anomaly maps

Interpretation of gravity maps – Gravity signatures of mineral deposits

Recent development in gravity surveys

Principles of Gravimeters

Applications of Gravimetric Surveys

UNIT 2:

The geomagnetic field and its variations

Rock magnetism

Magnetic anomalies

Magnetic surveying instruments – Fluxgate magnetometer, Proton magnetometer, Optically pumped magnetometer, Magnetic gradiometers

Magnetic survey practice – Ground and airborne surveys

Reduction of Magnetic data – Temporal and regional variations in field strength, Elevation and terrain effects

Interpretation of magnetic anomalies

Applications of magnetic surveying.

Field Surveys and Data Reductions

Preparation of Magnetic Anomaly Maps and their Quantitative Interpretation

Magnetic Anomalies due to a Single Pole and Dipole

Introduction to Aeromagnetic Survey, Three Dimensional Current Flow, Potential due to a point source.

 

ME3(a):  ADVANCED REMOTE SENSING IN GEOSCIENCES - I

UNIT 4:

Image Processing and interpretation

Thematic Mapper Bands

Band information Characteristics

Image Processing:

Contrast stretch and density slicing

Spatial filtering

Principal component analysis

Ratioing

Supervised classification

Maximum likelihood classification

Hyperspectral remote sensing

Extras:

Unsupervised classification

 

ME3(e):  ADVANCED ORE GEOLOGY – I

Textures of ore minerals and their significance in ore petrologic studies.

Ore textures formed due to crystallization from melts –crystal form and shape of early, later and simultaneous phases.

Textures formed due to deposition in open space – zoned crystals, colloform textures, comb structures, symmetrically and rhythmically crustified veins.

Textures formed due to replacement – controls of replacement, oriented and non-oriented replacements and relict textures.

 

ME4(a):  ADVANCED REMOTE SENSING IN GEOSCIENCES - II

UNIT 4:

Maps and Attributes
GIS Data Elements and Models
Data Resources for GIS - Spatial data, Attribute data,
Spatial Database - Concept, design and Management
Hierarchical and Relational Database Models
Hardware and software requirements for GIS
GIS Analysis
GIS in decision Making - Suitability determination
GPS, its application in geosciences.

Digital Elevation Models

Types of DEMs

Methods of obtaining Elevation Data used for creating DEMs

Use of DEMs in: Topographic and Geologic Modeling, Mineral Exploration, Morphometric Analysis, Floodplain Mapping and Analysis, Watershed Management, Erosion Control

Commercial Applications of DEMs

Availability of Global Elevation Data

 

ME4(e):  ADVANCED ORE GEOLOGY – II

Quantitative Methods in Ore Microscopy – Reflectance and Microindentation Hardness

Methods of fluid inclusion studies and their applications

Ore textures formed due to cooling – inversion and exsolution textures.

Textures formed due to deformation – twinning, lattice bending, kinking, brecciation and cataclasis.

Textures formed due to annealing – recrystallization, zoned overgrowths and homogenization of primary zoning.

Applications of textural characteristics to ore dressing – geometric classification of ore mineral textures and their liberation characteristics.

ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

UNIT 1:
The spectrum of environmental geology
Geological time scales of global change in the ecosystem and climate
Anthropogenic impacts on the atmosphere
Recent atmospheric trends
Local impacts changing the landscape
Smog and topospheric ozone
Role of geology in understanding atmspheric changes

UNIT 2:
CO2 and greenhouse effects
Nitrogen oxide and ozone layer
Cycling of carbon
Environmental effects of global warming
Records of paleotemperature in icecores of glaciers
Paleo-temperature changes during the glacial ages
Glacial ages, Last ice age, Causes of glaciation
Limestone deposits in geological sequence
Cenozoic climate extremes
Evolution of life especially the impact on human evolution

M-14:  ADVANCED ORE GEOLOGY

UNIT 2:

Stable and radiogenic isotopes of ores and host rocks

Ore deposits related to subaerial volcanism

Ore Deposits of Oceanic Crust, Ocean Floor and those Related to Plate Subduction

Special Paper 7 - Impact of Geology on Environment I

UNIT 1:
Concept of ecosystem
Ecology, Ecological perspective of environment
Human population as an environmental problem
Biotic communities
Biological diversity
Values of Indian biodiversity
Indian biodiversity under serious threat
Concept of sustainable development
Sustainable living and non-living resources
Environmental priorities in India and sustainable development
Mineral resources and environment

UNIT 4:
Impact of human settlement, population, urbanization, global warming and climatic changes
Anthropogenic impact on environment
Depletion of stratospheric ozone, ozone layer, Chemistry of ozone layer, ozone hole, effects of ozone depletion.

 

PRACTICAL ML4 - COMPUTER APPLICATIONS IN GEOSCIENCES (Sem III)

Exercise -1: Land Cover change detection using GIS and reflectance imageries

Extent of study area

Topographic Map 1971

Landsat imagery 1999

Quickbird imagery 2017

Exercise -2: Preparing Landslide Inventory Maps using Virtual Globes

Extent of Landslide Inventory Map in Eastern Kumaon Himalaya

Exercise -3: Geological Mapping using reflectance imagery as a base map

Extent of Geological Map in Southern Rajasthan

 

ME-2: GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE

 

UNIT 2:

Composition and structure of the atmosphere

Importance of atmosphere to human life

Changes in atmospheric composition in recent times Edited version

Burning of fossil fuels

Deforestation, global land use/land cover changes

Greenhouse gases and their effects


Processes of Ore Formation

Ore Deposits and Crustal Evolution

Global Metallogeny in Relation to Crustal Evolution

Ore Microscopic Techniques

Sample Preparation for Ore Microscopy

NOTE: Some of the Tutorials and Lecture Notes are in PDF format, which means that you must have Adobe Acrobat Reader installed on the computer you use to access these.  If your machine does not have Acrobat Reader installed, click here to download and install the same.

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Notes & Handouts

The Himalayas

Kumaon Himalayas

Askot Basemetals

University

   


This website is hosted by

S. Farooq

Department of Geology

Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh - 202 002 (India)

Phone: 91-571-2721150

email: farooq.amu@gmail.com