Types of Platforms and Scanning Systems

 

The vehicle or carrier for a remote sensor to collect and record energy reflected or emitted from a target or surface is called a platform.  The sensor must reside on a stable platform removed from the target or surface being observed. Platforms for remote sensors may be situated on the ground, on an aircraft or balloon (or some other platform within the Earth's atmosphere), or on a spacecraft or satellite outside of the Earth's atmosphere.

Typical platforms are satellites and aircraft, but they can also include radio-controlled aeroplanes, balloons kits for low altitude remote sensing, as well as ladder trucks or 'cherry pickers' for ground investigations. The key factor for the selection of a platform is the altitude that determines the ground resolution and which is also dependent on the instantaneous field of view (IFOV) of the sensor on board the platform.

Ground Based Sensors

Ground-based sensors are often used to record detailed information about the surface which is compared with information collected from aircraft or satellite sensors. In some cases, this can be used to better characterize the target which is being imaged by these other sensors, making it possible to better understand the information in the imagery.

Ground based sensors may be placed on a ladder, scaffolding, tall building, cherry-picker, crane, etc.

Aerial Platforms

Aerial platforms are primarily stable wing aircraft, although helicopters are occasionally used. Aircraft are often used to collect very detailed images and facilitate the collection of data over virtually any portion of the Earth's surface at any time.

Satellite Platforms

In space, remote sensing is sometimes conducted from the space shuttle or, more commonly, from satellites. Satellites are objects which revolve around another object - in this case, the Earth.

For example, the moon is a natural satellite, whereas man-made satellites include those platforms launched for remote sensing, communication, and telemetry (location and navigation) purposes.

Salient feature of some important satellite platforms.

Features

Landsat1,2,3

Landsat 4,5

SPOT

IRS-IA

IRS-IC

Nature

Sun Syn

Sun Syn

Sun Syn

Sun Syn

Sun Syn

Altitude (km)

919

705

832

904

817

Orbital period (minutes)

103.3

99

101

103.2

101.35

inclination (degrees

99

98.2

98.7

99

98.69

Temporal resolution (days)

18

16

26

22

24

Revolutions

251

233

369

307

341

Equatorial crossing (AM)

09.30

09.30

10.30

10.00

10.30

Sensors

RBV, MSS

MSS, TM

HRV

LISS-I, LISS-II

LISS-III, PAN, WIFS

 

Because of their orbits, satellites permit repetitive coverage of the Earth's surface on a continuing basis. Cost is often a significant factor in choosing among the various platform options.

SENSORS

There are two basic types of sensors:

  • Passive, and

  • Active sensors.

Passive sensors record radiation reflected from the earth's surface. The source of this radiation must come from outside the sensor; in most cases, this is solar energy. Because of this energy requirement, passive solar sensors can only capture data during daylight hours. The Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor system on the Landsat satellite is a passive sensor. The land cover and change analysis data provided on this CD-ROM were classified using Landsat TM imagery.

Active sensors are different from passive sensors. Unlike passive sensors, active sensors require the energy source to come from within the sensor. For example, a laser-beam remote sensing system is an active sensor that sends out a beam of light with a known wavelength and frequency. This beam of light hits the earth and is reflected back to the sensor, which records the time it took for the beam of light to return. Topographic LIDAR laser beach mapping data included on this CD-ROM were collected with an active sensor.

 

Types of Remote Sensors

ACTIVE SENSORS 

PASSIVE SENSORS 

Non-Scanning

    • Non-Imaging. (They are a type of profile recorder, ex. Microwave Radiometer. Magnetic sensor. Gravimeter. Fourier Spectrometer.
    • Imaging. (Example of this are the cameras which can be: Monochrome, Natural Colour, Infrared etc.)

Scanning

    • Imaging. Image Plane scanning. Ex. TV Camera, Solid scanner.
      Object Plane scanning. Ex. Optical Mechanical Scanner, Microwave radiometer.

Non-Scanning

Non-Imaging. (They are a type of profile recorder, ex. Microwave Radiometer. Microwave Altimeter. Laser Water Depth Meter. Laser Distance Meter.

 Scanning

Imaging.

      Object Plane scanning:

Real Aperture Radar.

Synthetic Aperture Radar.

Image Plane Scanning:

 Passive Phased Array Radar.

   


This website is hosted by

S. Farooq

Department of Geology

Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh - 202 002 (India)

Phone: 91-571-2721150

email: farooq.amu@gmail.com