S. Farooq  
Department of Geology
Aligarh Muslim University


Basemetal Resource Information System for Pithoragarh District, (Kumaon) Himalaya A Remote Sensing & GIS Approach

Geology of the Eastern Kumaon Himalaya:

In spite of a lot of good work by many generations of geologists in the Lesser Kumaon Himalaya, many structural and stratigraphic interpretations remain inagequate because of the meager fossil record.  Geological correlation is based almost entirely on stratigraphic evidence.  Most workers postulate the existence of regional inversion of sedimentary sequences in the form of two elongated tectonic belts of sedimentary/metasedimentary rocks separated by an ENE-WSW trending zone of metamorphic rocks the Almora-Dudhatoli Crystalline Zone.

The southern sedimentary belt which occurs south of the Almora-Dudhatoli Crystallines and is called the Outer Sedimentary Belt.  The northern sedimentary belt occurring north of the Crystallines is the Inner Sedimentary Belt, which has also been referred to as the Deoban-Tejam Zone (Gansser, 1964) or the Jaunsar-Berinag Nappe (Valdiya, 1978).  The Crystalline zone representing the divide between the two sedimentary belts constituting the Kumaon Lesser Himalaya is itself an inverted sequence of low to very high grade older metamorphics thrust over the younger sedimentaries from the Central Axial Crystalline Zone during the main Himalayan orogeny.

Geological Map of Pithoragarh District, Kumaon Himalaya.

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A generalized tectonic sequence for the Lesser Kumaon Himalaya (Valdiya, 1978) is tabulated below:

Vaikrita Group
--------- Vaikrita Thrust --------
Munsiari Formation
------------- Main Central Thrust -------------
Almora-Dudhatoli Nappe
(with Askot, Baijnath, Chiplakot and Satpuli Klinne)
--------------- Almora Thrust ---------------
Outer Sedimentary Belt
Inner Sedimentary Belt
-------------- Main Boundary Fault --------------
Siwalik Group


Inner Sedimentary Belt
Outer Sedimentary Belt
The Crystalline Units
The Askot Crystallines

Geological Map of Kumaon Himalaya




Wallrock Alteration



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S. Farooq

Department of Geology

Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh - 202 002 (India)

Phone: 91-571-2721150